Wednesday, 10 February 2016

DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM

Domain Name System Architecture


The Domain name system comprises of Domain Names, Domain Name Space, Name Server that have been described below:

Domain Names:

Domain Name is a symbolic string associated with an IP address. There are several domain names available; some of them are generic such as com, edu, gov, net etc, while some country level domain names such as au, in, za, us etc.
The following table shows the Generic Top-Level Domain names:
Domain Name
Meaning
Com
Commercial business
Edu
Education
Gov
U.S. government agency
Int
International entity
Mil
U.S. military
Net
Networking organization
Org
Non profit organization
The following table shows the Country top-level domain names:
Domain Name
Meaning
Au
Australia
In
India
Cl
Chile
Fr
France
Us
United States
Za
South Africa
Uk
United Kingdom
Jp
Japan
Es
Spain
De
Germany
Ca
Canada
Ee
Estonia
Hk
Hong Kong

Domain Name Space:

The domain name space refers a hierarchy in the internet naming structure. This hierarchy has multiple levels (from 0 to 127), with a root at the top. The following diagram shows the domain name space hierarchy:
In the above diagram each subtree represents a domain. Each domain can be partitioned into sub domains and these can be further partitioned and so on.

Name Server:

Name server contains the DNS database. This database comprises of various names and their corresponding IP addresses. Since it is not possible for a single server to maintain entire DNS database, therefore, the information is distributed among many DNS servers.
·        Hierarchy of server is same as hierarchy of names.
·        The entire name space is divided into the zones

Zones

Zone is collection of nodes (sub domains) under the main domain. The server maintains a database called zone file for every zone.
If the domain is not further divided into sub domains then domain and zone refers to the same thing.
The information about the nodes in the sub domain is stored in the servers at the lower levels however; the original server keeps reference to these lower levels of servers.

 

TYPES OF NAME SERVERS

Following are the three categories of Name Servers that manages the entire Domain Name System:
1.    Root Server
2.    Primary Server
3.    Secondary Server
ROOT SERVER
Root Server is the top level server which consists of the entire DNS tree. It does not contain the information about domains but delegates the authority to the other server
PRIMARY SERVERS
Primary Server stores a file about its zone. It has authority to create, maintain, and update the zone file.
SECONDARY SERVER
Secondary Server transfers complete information about a zone from another server which may be primary or secondary server. The secondary server does not have authority to create or update a zone file.

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